Dicto to simpliciter (general rule): It occurs when a general rule is applied to a particular case where the rule would not have to be applied. Former: ' ' If you killed somebody, you must go for cadeia.' ' (one does not apply the certain cases). Mistake: To use a different affirmation with meaning of what he would be appropriate to the context. Former: ' ' The assassins of children are desumanos. Therefore, the human beings do not kill crianas' '. Fallacy of the division (to take the part for all): The opposite of the composition fallacy.

It assumes that a property of all is applied to each part. Former: ' ' You must be rich, therefore she studies in a college of ricos.' ' Fallacy of the presupposition: It consists of the inclusion of a presupposition that previously was not clarified as true, that is, in the lack of a premise. Former: ' ' You already stopped to beat in its wife? ' ' Fallacy of composition (to take all for the part): It is the fact to conclude that a property of the parts must be applied to all. Former: ' ' All the parts of this truck are light; soon, the truck is leve.' ' Fallacy of espantalho: It consists of creating ideas you disapproved or weak, attributing them the opposing position to it. Former: ' ' We would have to abolish all the weapons of the world. Thus verdadeira.&#039 would only have peace; ' Or still, ' ' My adversary, for being of a left party, is in favor of the radical communism, and wants to remove all its ownerships, beyond occupying its houses with people who you not conhece.' ' False dichotomy (bifurcation): Also known as ' ' fallacy of white and preto' '. It occurs when somebody presents a situation with only two alternatives, when in fact other alternatives exist or can exist.